Close this search box.

The Revocation of Offer by a Third Party.

The Revocation of Offer by a Third Party.

The Position of the Law Regarding to the Revocation of Offer by a Third Party.

By Umar Abdulmumeen Kayode

What is revocation?

What is an offer?

Who is a third party?

Revocation is an annulment or cancellation of a statement or agreement. In the context of contracts, revocation may refer to the offeror canceling an offer. That is to say “an offer may be revoked at any time before its acceptance is communicated to the proposer, but not afterwards.” Revocation may also refer to a buyer’s rejection of goods that do not conform to the contract specifications. Revocation of offer is the withdrawal of a previous offer to engage in some sort of legally binding contract. see the case of Payne v. Cave(1789) 3 TR 148

An offer, as an element of a contract is a proposal to

make a contract. It must be made by the person who makes the promise, and it must be made to whom the promise is made. It may be made either by

words or by signs, either orally or in writing form and either

personally or by a messenger but in whatever way it is

made, it is not yet an offer in law until it comes to the knowledge of the person who made it.

Third party means any person (including companies, partnerships, legal entities, churches, government authorities or agencies) who is not a party to the agreement. A third party is a person who is not a party to the contract. Common law recognizes three significant third parties:

(I)Third-party beneficiary: If the parties to the contract intend a third party to be able to sue for enforcement of a promise made in the contract, then that person is a third-party beneficiary.

(ii)Assignee: If a party transfers a right under the contract to a third party, that person is an assignee. The assignor (the one who assigned the rights) drops out of the picture and the obligor (the one who is obligated to perform) must perform for the assignee.

(iii)Delegate: If a party delegates a duty under the contract to a third party, that person is a delegate. The delegate must now perform the contract but the delegator (the one who was obligated under the contract to perform) remains liable for performance and breach. “Qui facit para lium facit per se”

Now the question is, can a revocation from a third party regarded as a valid revocation?

It is a settled law like a sugar in a cup of tea that a third party can revoke an offer to a contract before the acceptance of the offer by the offeree. swe the case of DICKINSONv.DODDS.[1874 D. 94.]. It went further to establish that revocation of an offer could be made through social medias as far as it reaches the offeree before he accepts the offer.

It is partinent to note that it is a well established principle that revocation of offer could only be valid when the revocation is communicated to the offeree before acceptance. see the case of Byrne & Co. v Leon Van Tienhoven & Co (1880) LR 5 CPD 344, Common Pleas Division.

However, at common law the revocation of an offer by an act of a third party can only valid if the third party falls under any of the following;

(I)Third party beneficiary



In conclusion, any other form of third party apart from the above mentioned ones is not recognized in law. ultimately, any act of revocation from them is nul and void.


©️UMAR ABDULMUMEEN KAYODE (Almudir official).

LLB 2 student @ faculty of law, University of Abuja.



This work is published for free under the free legal awareness program of Sabi Law Foundation (, funded by the law firm of Bezaleel Chambers International ( You can support the legal awareness program of Sabi Law Foundation by donating here. Donate here and get our unique appreciation certificate or memento. 


This publication is not a piece of legal advice. The opinion expressed in this publication is that of the author(s) and not necessarily the opinion of our organization, staff and partners.


🛒 Take short courses, get Samples/Precedents and learn your rights at    

🎯 Publish your legal articles for FREE by sending them to: 

🎁 Receive our free Daily Law Tips & other publications via our website and social media accounts or join our free WhatsApp group: Daily Law Tips Group 5

Keep in Touch:

Get updates on all the free legal awareness projects of Sabi Law (#SabiLaw) and its partners via:

Facebook Page: SabiLaw


Twitter: @Sabi_Law

YouTube: SabiLaw

WhatsApp Groups: Free Daily Law Tips Group 5

Telegram Group: Free Daily Law Tips Group

Facebook group: SabiLaw



About Us & Our Partners:

This publication is the initiative of the Sabi Law Foundation (,) funded by the law firm of Bezaleel Chambers International ( Sabi Law Foundation is a Not-For-Profit and Non-Governmental Legal Awareness Organization based in Nigeria. It is the first of its kind and has been promoting free legal awareness since 2010, with a massive repository of legal materials. It enjoys the technological support of SabiLaw Solutions Limited ( and several other partners. 

Donation & Sponsorship:

As a registered not-for-profit and non-governmental organization, Sabi Law Foundation relies on donations and sponsorships to promote free legal awareness across Nigeria and the world. With vast followership across the globe, your contributions will assist us in increasing legal awareness, improving access to justice, and reducing common legal disputes and crimes in Nigeria. Make your donations to us here or contact us for sponsorship and partnership via:  or +234 903 913 1200.




Leave a Reply

Related Posts

Contact Support


Welcome! Log into your account